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Acceleration
WORKSHEET 15
Sample Problem
In 1970, Don Big Daddy Garlits set what was then the world record for drag racing. He started at rest and accelerated at 16.5 m/s2 (about 1.68 times free-fall acceleration) for 6.5 s. What was Garlitss final speed?
1. List the given and unknown values.
Given: acceleration, a = 16.5 m/s2
time, t = 6.5 s
initial velocity, vo = 0 m/s
Unknown: final velocity, vf = ? m/s
2. Rearrange the acceleration equation to solve for final speed.
acceleration = change in speed / time a = "v/t = (vf vo) / t
vf = at + v0
v0 = vf - at
t = (vf vo) / a
4. Substitute acceleration, time, and initial speed values into the acceleration
equation, and solve.
vf = at + v0
vf = (16.5 m/s2 * 6.5 s) + 0 m/s
vf = 11 m/s
1. A bicyclist accelerates at 0.89 m/s2 during a 5.0 s interval. What is the change in the speed of the bicyclist and the bicycle?
2. A freight train traveling with a speed of 18.0 m/s begins braking as it approaches a train yard. The trains acceleration while braking is -0.33 m/s2. What is the trains speed after 23 s?
3. An automobile accelerates 1.77 m/s2 over 6.00 s to reach freeway speed at the end of an entrance ramp. If the cars final speed is 24.44 m/s, what was its initial speed when it began accelerating?
4. A child sleds down a steep, snow-covered hill with an acceleration of 2.82 m/s2. If her initial speed is 0.0 m/s and her final speed is 15.5 m/s, how long does it take her to travel from the top of the hill to the bottom?
5. The street automobile with the greatest acceleration is the Tempest. It has an acceleration of 6.89 m/s2. Suppose the car accelerates from rest to a final speed of 26.806 m/s. How long does it take the Tempest to reach this speed?
6. The Impact is the first commercial electric car to be developed in over 60 years. During tests in 1994, the car reached a top speed of nearly 82.22 m/s. Suppose the car started at rest and then underwent a constant acceleration of 1.6 m/s2 until it reached its top speed. How long did it take the Impact to reach its top speed?
7. The gravitational force between Mars and an object near its surface is much lower than the force between an object on Earths surface and Earth. If a dropped hammers speed increases from 0.0 m/s to 15.0 m/s in 4.04 s, what is the acceleration due to the gravitational force on the surface of Mars?
8. A fighter jet landing on an aircraft carriers flight deck that has a length of 300.0 m must reduce its speed from about 42.5 m/s to exactly 0 m/s in 2.0 s. What is the jets acceleration?
9. A runner whose initial speed is 8.056 m/s increases her speed to 8.611 m/s in order to win a race. If the runner takes 5.0 s to complete this increase in her speed, what is her acceleration?
10. A certain roller coaster accelerates its cars 6.35 m/s2 up the first incline. If this acceleration happens during the first 7.0 s of the ride, how much does the speed of the roller coaster cars increase?
11. The solid-fuel rocket boosters used to launch the space shuttle are able to lift the shuttle 45 km above Earths surface. During that time, the shuttle undergoes a nearly constant total acceleration of 6.25 m/s2, so that its speed increases from rest to about 750 m/s. How long does it take for the shuttle to reach this speed?
12. Bonnie Blair currently holds the world record for skating 500.0 m in 38.69 s, which she set in 1995. Suppose that after she crossed the finish line she coasted to a stop on the ice. If her initial speed was 13 m/s
and her acceleration was -2.9 m/s2, how long did it take her to stop?
13. The elevators in the Landmark Tower, in Yokohama, Japan, are among the fastest in the world. They accelerate upward at 3.125 m/s2 for 4.00 s to reach their final speed. If these elevators start at rest, what is their final speed?
14. A ship with a mass of kg has engines capable of an acceleration equal to -0.357 m/s2. Suppose the ship approaches the dock at a speed of 16.98 m/s. How much time does the ship need to stop?
15. A dog runs with an initial speed of 1.5 m/s on a waxed floor. It slides to a stop with an acceleration of -0.35 m/s2. How long does it take for the dog to stop?
16. A certain type of rocket sled is used to measure the effects of sudden, extreme deceleration. The sled reaches a top speed of 88.89 m/s, then comes to a complete stop in 0.18 s. What is the acceleration that takes place in this time?
17. The building with the highest occupiable floor is currently the Sears Tower in Chicago. The top floor of the Sears Tower is 110 stories (436 m) above street level, and the roof of the tower is 442 m above the street. Assume a golf ball is thrown downward from the roof of the Sears Tower. Neglecting air resistance, the golf ball accelerates at 9.8 m/s2 and lands on the pavement after 9.2 s. If the balls final speed is 93.0 m/s, what was the speed with which the ball was initially thrown?
18. In the theory of plate tectonics, various segments of Earths crust, called plates, move toward and away from each other. In one instance, the plate that consists of the Indian subcontinent drifted from southeastern Africa to its current position in Asia, traveling at a speed of 15 cm/y. This plate collided with Asia, forming the Himalayan mountain $'(5BR, S Z ѽxcxK3/h%h%6B*CJOJQJ]^JaJph/h%h%5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph)h%h%B*CJOJQJ^JaJph)h%h%B*CJOJQJ^JaJph/h%h%5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph/h%h%5B*CJ(OJQJ\^JaJ(ph'h%h%5B*OJQJ\^Jph/h%h%>*B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph,h%h%B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph'(5BCR, - S v
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